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Energetic materials are a class of chemical compounds that includes explosives, pyrotechnics, and propellants in conventional weapons. These materials rapidly release large amounts of gaseous products, and energy upon detonation. The most frequently manufactured, and used energetic chemicals include: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), dinitrotoluenes (DNTs), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl), 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid or PA), nitrocellulose (NC), pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), nitroglycerin (NG), ethyleneglycoldinitrate (EGDN), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). The polycyclic nitramine, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane, or CL-20, which was first synthesized in the late 80ís, is presently considered as a potential replacement for RDX, and HMX. The most frequently encountered nitro organic energetic materials, including TNT, DNTs, aminodinitrotoluenes (ADNTs), diaminonitrotoluenes (DANTs), and cyclic nitramines RDX, HMX, and CL-20 possess the characteristic labile X-NO2 functional groups (with X = C or N), which play a key role in determining their transport, and transformation routes, and thereby their environmental impact. Table below provides the names and molecular structure of the most often encountered energetic materials.
 

 

Energetic Materials Table


Molecular
Group
Common Name Chemical Name
(CAS Number)
Structure Chemical
Formula

Nitroaromatic compounds TNT 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
(118-96-7)
C7H5N3O6
  2,4-DNT 2,4-dinitrotoluene
(121-14-2)
C7H6N2O4
  Tetryl 2,4,6-trinitro-phenylmethyl- nitramine
(479-45-8)
C7H5N5O8
  TATB 1,3,5-triamino- trinitrobenzene
(3058-36-6)
C6H6N6O6
  Picric Acid (PA) 2,4,6-trinitrophenol
(88-89-1)
C6H3N3O7

Nitrate esters NC nitrocellulose
(9004-70-0)
C6H7O2(OH)x(ONO2)y
x + y = 3
  PETN pentaerythritol tetranitrate
(78-11-5)
C5H8N4O12
  NG nitroglycerin
(55-63-0)
C3H5N3O9
  EGDN ethyleneglycol dinitrate
(628-96-6)
C2H4N2O6

Nitramines RDX hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5- triazine
(82030-42-0)
C3H6N6O6
  HMX octahydro-1,3,5,7- tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine
(6291-41-0)
C4H8N8O8
  CL-20 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane
(135285-90-4)
C6H6N12O1
  NGu nitroguanidine
(556-88-7)
CH4N4O2

Azides GAP glycidyl azide polymer
(800044-10-6)
C3H5N3O




Last Updated: August 13th 2009 - Feedback